GEORGIAS FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS: TRENDS, PRIORITIES, AND PROSPECTS

Baadur TSERETELI


Baadur Tsereteli, Master of Geography, Research Officer of Tbilisi State University, Department of Social, Economic, and Political Geography (Tbilisi, Georgia)


The Laws Governing World Economic Relations

When defining Georgias foreign economic policy and developing principles for integrating its economy into the world economic system, we must keep in mind the laws governing development.

On the basis of international labor division, the world economic system is having an increasing influence on the economy of each country, as well as changing it, both in general (the relations among major spheres and industries) and specific terms (with respect to its individual parts, technologies, and commodities). Economic activity is becoming more internationalized and globalized due to integration processes and the creation of transnational production complexes. Transnational corporations are bringing together national economies on the basis of in-depth specialization and production cooperation.

The technological revolution, production generalization, and the emergence of global problems, which can only be resolved by many countries together, have promoted intensified economic internationalization. Today, the economic efficiency of each country relies on the economic policy of other states or groups of states. The degree of interdependence among countries is distinguished by the volume of their actual resources, as well as in keeping with the policy conducted by the governmentfree trade or isolation.

During the second half of the 20th century, interdependence began to acquire a passive and universal nature due to the expansion of the trade volume, the emergence of debt problems, and the increase in the mobility of capital and manpower.1 The trade volume has become the main attribute of international economic life. It acts as a factor for increasing national resources and strengthening dependence on external ties.

The following features are characteristic of the current level of international economic relations: greater international labor distribution; qualitative changes in trade of finished products, which has lost its commercial nature and become a means for serving the national production processes; intensified movement of capital; accelerated exchange of scientific-technical knowledge and the service spheres; increased migration of the work force, and accelerated economic integration among countries and regions.2

As an integrated sphere of trade, production, and credit-financial relations forms, a world economic complex is essentially being created. In this way, the most important development trend in the world economic system is the striving to create an integrated planetary market of goods, capital, and services, as well as achieve economic rapprochement and unification among countries. The globalization of economic life has two sides. First, at the macroeconomic level, it means that countries and individual regions are mutually interested in expanding economic activity beyond their own borders. The characteristic features of this phenomenon are liberalization, the cancellation of trade and investment restrictions, the creation of integrated associations, and so on. Second, globalization at the micro level implies that business enterprises are becoming increasingly active beyond the domestic market.

National models and economic and social values are converging on a worldwide scale, and the development gap among different countries is narrowing. This is a complicated and contradictory process caused by many factors, i.e. the transition from an industrial to a post-industrial (information) society, the technological revolution, and the aggravation of raw energy, food, environmental, and other problems.

Trends and Factors

Due to Georgias consistent strategic policy toward liberalizing foreign trade, the Georgian economy is becoming more intensely integrated into the world economic system. Every year, the republics foreign trade turnover is growing, the geographical scope of its trade is expanding, and foreign investments are increasing. The country has essentially restored its historical geopolitical function and become a strategic economic partner of the Eurasian countries.

It should be noted that these processes are arduous and contradictory and involve enormous socioeconomic losses inherent of the transition period.

As the data show (see Table 1), the republics foreign trade turnover in 1995-1998 increased by 146.2% and reached $1,463,400. In 1999, it dropped lower than the 1995 level. In so doing, due to the accelerated growth in import (compared to export), there was an increase in the negative trade balance. Correspondingly, the export volume required for covering imports decreased, which essentially caused an increase in the foreign debt.

Table 1

Foreign Trade Balance for 19952000

(mill. dollars)

 

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Foreign trade turnover, total

1,000.7

1,103.1

1,429.7

1,463.4

948.0

1,023.0

including:

  • Export
  • Import
  • balance (+,-)


289.5

711.2

421.7



372.3

730.8

358.5



377.3

1,052.4

675.1



299.7

1,163.7

864.0



250.0

698.0

448.0



265.0

758.0

493.0

Export percentage in the turnover, %

28.9

33.7

26.4

20.5

26.4

25.9

Degree to which imports are covered by exports, %

40.7

50.9

35.9

25.8

35.8

35.0

Source: Georgian State Statistics Department.

It should be emphasized that during the past few years, the growth rates in domestic demand have slowed due to a reduction in real personal incomes and a tough economic policy.

Energy resources, tobacco, passenger cars, medication, wheat, and flour predominate in the import structure (see Table 2), and along with technical equipment investments, goods purchased with foreign credits and grants constitute an impressive share. It is obvious that the countrys economy and food sectors, and also the consumer market are very dependent.

Table 2

Import in Terms of the Main Commodity Groups (thou. dollars)

 

1999

2000

 

amount

percentage (%)

amount

percentage (%)

  • Oil and petroleum products
  • Gas
  • Medication
  • Cigars and cigarettes
  • Wheat
  • Flour
  • Sugar
  • Cars
  • Spare parts for audio technical equipment
  • Insulating materials, cables

57,744.6


12,370.4

41,539.3

35,181.9

15,516.5

14,842.0

16,178.6

37,657.5


5,312.1


3,216.2

9.6


10.4

6.9

5.8

2.6

2.5

2.7

6.3


0.9


0.5

68,901.1


48,373.0

45,694.0

29,298.0

28,452.9

25,072.3

22,312.8

19,213.7


17,131.5


14,833.6

9.8


6.9

6.5

4.2

4.1

3.6

3.2

2.7


2.4


2.1

Source: Georgian State Statistics Department.

With respect to export (see Table 3), raw material is still the main commodity. In so doing, it is characteristic that there is not a sufficiently clear structural link between the export and import of products.3 The objective reasons for this are the inherited irrational sectoral structure of the economy, the underdeveloped use of the republics production potential, the low level of product competitiveness on the world market, domestic problems with the monetary policy, the financial crisis in Russia (during the second half of 1998) and its negative impact on the production growth of many industries, and so on.

Table 3

Export in Terms of the Main Commodity Groups (thou. dollars)

 

1999

2000

 

amount

percentage (%)

amount

percentage (%)

Scrap

Wine

Nuts

Fertilizers

Ores of precious metals

Ferroalloys

Manganese ore

Aluminum products

Crude oil

Copper ore and concentrates

23,495.9

14,601.8

15,357.7

11,369.1

12,684.2

20,081.3

342.6

1,520.3

4,771.4

1,020.1

9.9

6.1

6.4

4.8

5.3

8.4

0.1

0.6

2.0

0.4

37,836.4

28,326.3

22,310.5

15,410.0

14,940.2

13,884.6

11,835.2

12,681.8

11,567.0

10,085.8

11.5

8.6

6.8

4.7

4.5

4.2

3.6

3.8

3.5

3.1

Source: Georgian State Statistics Department.

The establishment of rational, civilized foreign economic relations is also hindered by the bureaucratic management system, corruption, and other subjective factors. This gives rise to the following top priority tasks: strengthening discipline, improving accounting and reporting, increasing control, and creating an efficient mechanism of state foreign trade regulation. The necessary legal and institutional base exists for this.4

Geographical Review

Within the framework of the widespread economic reforms in Georgia, measures have been taken to liberalize and de-monopolize foreign trade. For example, the system of licensing, quoting, and mandatory registration of contracts has been cancelled; and a system has been created which promotes export transactions, integration of the economy into the world economic system, and efficient use of the countrys geopolitical position as much as possible. In addition, new partnership trade relations are being developed. Whereas by the beginning of 1995, the republic had trade relations with 54 countries, in 1999 this number reached 105 states. These contacts are essentially stable. For example, the ten largest partners accounted for 2/3 of the foreign trade turnover in 1995-1999, whereby the percentage of countries with developed market economies is increasing among these partners (see Table 4).

There is still a high percentage of CIS countries in the trade balance with whom bilateral trade relations have been established. The largest of them is Russia; it accounts for more than half of the production exported to the CIS countries. Trade turnover is increasing with Ukraine, one of Georgias most important trade and strategic partners, particularly since sea communication routes, as well as integration measures, are the prerequisites for closer economic interrelations. In 1997-1998, the percentage of these two countries in Georgias export amounted to 59.7% and 53.7%, and in its import to 36.4% and 35.2%, respectively. Therefore, the CIS market is the most important strategic area in our countrys foreign economic policy.5

Table 4

Main Trade Partners (%)

 

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Foreign trade turnover, total

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Russia

Turkey

Azerbaijan

Turkmenistan

Bulgaria

Armenia

Rumania

U.S.A.

Ukraine

Austria

England

Italy

The Virgin Islands

Germany

Switzerland

18.0

21.6

10.5

9.0

5.8

5.6

5.3

3.5

2.4

2.3

 

 

 

 

 

20.2

11.6

11.3

 

6.0

4.3

4.6

5.3

4.8

 

4.6

3.7

 

 

 

16.5

13.2

11.9

 

4.7

 

 

6.3

5.4

 

3.9

3.8

4.5

4.0

21.4

11.3

8.8

 

2.7

 

 

6.8

3.3

 

6.1

3.1

 

7.8

3.5

20.3

13.5

7.4

4.9

 

3.5

 

9.2

4.0

 

2.7

3.1

 

7.9

15.4

17.7

7.6

 

 

2.2

 

7.5

5.6

 

3.3

3.2

 

8.4

3.5

Main trade partners, total

84.0

76.4

74.2

74.5

76.3

74.3

CIS countries

47.1

44.1

40.4

38.1

40.1

36.0

Source: Georgian State Statistics Department.

The economic characteristics of the CIS countries fully correlate to the natural prerequisites of economic integration developed by world economic science: geographical proximity of national economic complexes, sufficiently high degree of historical mutual reciprocity, no significant differences in level of economic development, and the prevalence in each country of the same type of production relations. A corresponding contractual-legal basis has been created which regulates cooperation with the CIS countries in this sphere, and, in particular, agreements have been entered on trade and economic relations, the mutual protection and stimulation of investments, production cooperation, and interaction in transportation, free trade, and so on.

In order to retain and reinforce their foothold on the CIS markets, enterprises must be rendered assistance in establishing direct production and trade and economic relations with Commonwealth businessmen. This implies creating a data bank of commercial proposals, entering contracts (including at the ministerial level) with major regions, direct consumers, and so on.

Along with the development of traditional economic relations on a qualitatively new level, integration into the world economic system is also being stepped up. The priority areas in this sphere include creating conditions for promoting the export of different types of services and developing an infrastructure of services sectors.

As the Eurasian transportation corridor goes into operation and programs for transporting Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan oil through Georgia are implemented, all types of transport will develop, transportation networks will be improved, and an international warehousing system will be created at accelerated rates.

Strategic Priorities

Integration into the international service sphere implies developing the banking and financial systems, raising the role of information and information services, and developing and improving telecommunication and computer networks.

A priority area in foreign relations is tourism and resorts. The state program for expanding tourism envisages major investments aimed at taking the maximum advantage of the currency potential of this industry in the near future.

Along with developing and implementing the countrys food and energy programs, more attention must go to expanding and raising the export potential of the economys real sector in light of the financial and economic crisis. The crisis has shown what underestimating the role of industry, the pivot of the entire economy, can lead to. Until recently, the annual increase in the countrys GDP was accompanied by a deterioration in its structure, and most important there was an abrupt drop in the percentage of industry, the most revenue-yielding branch of the economy. Its strategic spheres (metallurgy, machine-building, and so on) were considered non-competitive, but rehabilitating and other stimulating measures were not conducted properly.6

According to the present author, Georgia should steer clear of extreme liberalization of foreign trade, since the principle of free trade is most preferable for a strong country, but is fatal for the weak, nascent branches of industry in developing countries. Their young industries need greenhouse conditions and active protectionism from the state.

An open economy should not be identified with lack of control over foreign economic relations and transparency of borders. On the contrary, an open economy, particularly during integration into the world market economy, requires rational interference by the state in foreign economic relations. In this situation, spontaneity not only hinders development, it also undermines the countrys economic security.

Customs and tax regulation are of utmost significance in achieving comprehensive development of the economy and forming an efficient domestic market. In our enthusiasm for fiscal interests, we should not forget the main function of customs taxesprotecting the domestic market and economic security, and assisting local manufacturers in order to saturate the consumer market and stimulate export. In this respect, it is expedient to raise the question of introducing a differential system of customs taxation, and in certain cases, a temporary, seasonal, and special customs tariff. The levers for stimulating export and developing import-substituting production time-honored in world practice must be used more efficiently.

Another important area in the republics foreign economic policy is expanding and intensifying relations with developed countries. In this respect, the question of the efficient use of the trade preferences they grant is extremely important. Georgias entry into the World Trade Organization will help to regulate mutually advantageous trade ties between our state and industrially developed countries. Georgias relations with the European Union are developing on the basis of an agreement on partnership and cooperation they signed, the trade and economic section of which came into force in September 1997.

The republics foreign economic activity has an objective need to attract foreign investments. Enormous investments are required to transfer the national economy to market relations, and modernize and strengthen the socially oriented economic development. The dearth of investments cannot be mitigated without bringing in resources from the outside. In so doing, top priority tasks are creating the necessary investment climate, determining branches and spheres of efficacious investment use, and forming an efficient system of investment regulation.

World practice has come up with specific conditions necessary for creating an environment conducive to attracting foreign investments: the presence of an educated and highly qualified work force, effective and applicable legislation, an adequate transportation system, a strong anti-monopoly and competent macroeconomic policy, and a prosperity-conducive culture. Based on this experience, we must primarily resolve the following tasks. First, stabilize the financial situation, that is, keep inflation at a low level (reduce the budget deficit to a minimum), conduct a tight monetary policy, lower the interest rate, improve relations among economic entities, and stabilize the national currency exchange rate. Second, liberalize and restructure the economy, ensure the transparency of macroeconomic measures, markets (including the labor market), statistics, and the banking system, and improve and observe legislation relating to business activity. Third, ensure the free repatriation of profits.

Investmentsthe Guarantee of Economic Growth

With respect to the above-mentioned macroeconomic parameters, Georgia, like other CIS countries, still has a low level of investment lure. The financial and economic crisis, corruption, the high level of red tape, and other negative factors mean that the post-Soviet states (including our republic) have a low rating with respect to investment and credit activity risk.

A complicated taxation system is still in effect in the country. The multitude of taxes and their high rate, the unorganized nature of customs and licensing regulation, the corruption of officials, the latent resistance of monopoly enterprises, and other factors are having a detrimental effect on the investment climate. The monetary and financial crisis at the international and regional levels is having a negative impact on investment accumulations and giving rise to a shortage of savings. Most of the funds are spent on meeting basic everyday needs. After all, we can only talk about the priority of investments after a certain level of political and socioeconomic stability has been reached.

Streamlining the legislative base, achieving a certain degree of stability, and the budding upswing in the economy in the mid-1990s resulted in a perceptible increase in foreign investments. This was also promoted by the implementation of several major projects, among which construction of the Baku-Supsa pipeline should be singled out. The significant increase in the number of enterprises created with a share of foreign capital should also be noted.

According to the State Statistics Department, the share of foreign capital in investments is steadily growing (see Table 5). But its increase also indicates the shortcomings in this sphere. The attraction of local resources is also unsatisfactory.

Table 5

Investment Volume in 1995-1998 (mill. lari)

 

1995

1996

1997

1998

Total investments

128

171

266

481

including foreign investments

43

86

180

378

Percentage of foreign investments, %

33.5

50.3

67.7

78.6

Source: Georgian State Statistics Department.

The main consumers in the investment structure are industry and transportation. In so doing, capital in industry is mainly concentrated in power engineering. As for the key processing industriesmetallurgy, chemistry, machine-building, metal processing, forestry, the light industry, and othersthey are suffering from investment starvation. In addition, during these years, nothing was invested in rail, road, and air transportation. As noted above, investment activity in this branch and throughout the entire economy is promoted by the development of pipeline transportation.

In spite of the extremely high growth rates in foreign investments in 1995-1998, the GDP remained essentially at the same level, and in terms of export volume, it even dropped (see Fig. 1). There is a direct link between investments and an increase in import, since it largely consists of investment commoditiestechnology, machinery, and equipment.

The slowing in the GDP growth rates, including in industrial and agricultural production, is not only caused by external factors, but also by the low level of investment in the capital-forming branches.

It should be noted that foreign investments cannot be viewed as a permanent factor in economic expansion, since balanced development can only be reached on the basis of domestic investments. But the republic has not achieved any perceptible results in this area. There is still a growing disproportion in income distribution. Savings are accumulating in banks, in monopoly enterprises, and in the hands of financial and industrial groups. Due to the unfavorable investment climate, they are being deposited in securities and foreign assets, rather than in the real sector of the economy.

Figure 1

Dynamics of the Main Macroeconomic Indices

In order to attract foreign investments and raise their efficiency, a scientifically substantiated active state policy must be conducted. In so doing, it should be kept in mind that foreign investments often have negative consequences, and market mechanisms do not always act in our interests. The choice of investment is of immense significance. Corresponding calculations show that direct investments in basic capital reduce the demand for foreign resources by 40-45% compared with other ways, for instance, attracting credit resources for purchasing consumer goods, machinery, and equipment. So preference should go to reinforcing integration processes at the micro level, and forming associations based on private investments (creating joint ventures, opening branches of transnational corporations, building new enterprises).

An active industrial policy must be conducted by choosing those priority branches (industries) which will ensure the maximum yield with the creation of a favorable investment environment. In our country, these branches are primarily in the agroindustrial complex. Highly qualified specialists work in this field, high-quality food products and consumer goods are still traditionally manufactured, the raw material base is well developed, there are unused production capacities, and so on.

An important area in the strategy of macroeconomic regulation and efficient investment policy is creating and developing financial and industrial groups. Merging banking and industrial capital helps to form efficient investment mechanisms and a flexible industrial policy, provides an opportunity to finance priority branches and projects, as well as to load production capacities and raise the competitiveness of production, and so on.7 The world experience of stepping investment activity (South Korea, China, Eastern European countries, and so on) and creating special economic zones should be made use of. Capital invested in these zones enjoys tax benefits and other support. The main thing for us is to choose the specific features which meet our countrys needs.

World practice shows that direct foreign investments are primarily made in the service sphere and then, as privatization intensifies, in industry. Therefore, completion of the privatization process, final resolution of the property question, and creation of a solid economic and legal foundation are all vital conditions for the efficient use of foreign investments.

In Georgia, a legal framework conducive to an inflow of foreign investments is being streamlined, and the number of interstate agreements on the mutual stimulation and protection of investments is being increased. As of today, such agreements have been signed with 21 states (one with the United States, eight with European countries, four with Asian states, and eight with CIS republics).

The question of creating a bank of investment projects in Georgia has essentially be resolved, and an integrated data bank has been formed which contains information on the foreign businessmen operating in the country and on the joint projects being developed.

We need to create an efficient banking system and form and develop securities and capital markets to further intensify this process.

New Opportunities and Prospects

Full integration into the European Union is the main priority of the republics foreign policy. The European Union is conducting negotiations with candidate countries for joining this organization through consultations and agreements, the goal of which is to create a free trade zone between the European Union and its associated states (according to the agreement, this process will last for ten years) and prepare the candidate states for membership in the EU. Mandatory criteria were approved for the candidates at the summit in Copenhagen in 1993: stability of the institutions which are the countrys guarantor of democracy, observance of the law, protection of human rights, and respect for the rights of minorities; the presence of a functional market economy; the ability to withstand competition and the pressure of market forces within the EU; and being able and willing to fulfill the obligation of a member of this organizationloyalty to political, economic, and financial integration.

In this way, in order to become an associated member of the European Union, Georgia must improve its economic and social indices and conduct fundamental institutional, economic, and administrative reforms. Several unpopular measures must be undertaken to fulfill these conditions. In turn, the European Union must also assume certain obligations.

According to the bilateral agreement on partnership and cooperation (PCA), the EU is obliged to render technical assistance to Georgia in the form of grants which are primarily to be used to accelerate economic reforms in the country. This assistance will be rendered on the basis of indicator programs within the framework of TACIS, which sets forth the priorities that have been coordinated between Georgia and the EU.

In 1992-1995, our republic was allotted 23 million ECU under the TACIS program to restructure the energy sector and enterprises in other spheres, to develop the private sector and human resources, and to form institutions of democracy. It should be noted that during this period, the European Union and its partners granted (through TACIS and other channels) humanitarian and food assistance to the countrys population, particularly to refugees and forced migrants. In 1996, the volume of technical assistance also increased, which promoted the social, economic, and political reforms in the republic. In 1996-1999, the indicator program determined the amount of assistance stipulated by the TACIS program, which constituted 32 million Euro. On the whole, it was used to privatize and develop the private sector. Assistance in the sphere of public administration implied raising the qualification of state officials and stimulating local and foreign investments. In 1998-1999, the Action Program envisaged three areas of cooperation: infrastructure (power engineering and transportation), private business, and human resources. A grant of 16 million Euro was allotted to these purposes. In addition, the state received assistance from intergovernmental programs (the TEMPUS Program, Facilities Program, and so on), among which TRACECA should be particularly singled out (with respect to the development of Transcaucasian hydrocarbon shipments).

The TRACECA program was adopted in May 1993 at a conference in Brussels attended by the trade and transportation ministers of the South Caucasian and Central Asian countries. Its main purpose is to develop the West-East transportation corridor from Europe via the Black Sea and the Caucasus to the Caspian Sea and Central Asia. Its main tasks are to support the economic independence of the South Caucasian and Central Asian countries, assist their entry onto the European and world market by means of alternative transportation routes, stimulate the development of cooperation among the republics, use TACIS and TRACECA as catalysts for attracting international financial institutions and private investments, and establish ties between TRACECA and Transeuropean networks (TENs).

Under the TRACECA program, 22 technical assistance projects (30 million Euro) and seven investment projects for rehabilitating infrastructure (25 million Euro) were financed. According to the leaders of the three South Caucasian countries and five Central Asian states, the TRACECA route is of strategic significance since it makes it possible to create a transportation artery which will become to a certain extent an alternative to the old and overloaded route that passes through Moscow.8 In addition, TRACECA assistance has helped to attract larger investments. For example, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development granted 250 million USD for the development of ports, railroads, and roads in eight of the TRACECA member states, and the World Bank allotted 40 million USD to the construction of new and the reconstruction of existing roads in Georgia and Armenia.

The TRACECA/BSEC conference held in April 1997 in Tbilisi was an extremely auspicious event. Its participants reviewed the possibility of linking the TRACECA routes up to the Black Sea region. The ministers of 16 member states expressed the desire to connect these routes to the Transeuropean main lines. This discussion was continued at the European conference on transport (Helsinki, 1997), where the Black Sea region was recognized as the Pan European Transport Area (PETRA), which could lead to the development of TENs to the East. For example, the EU agreed to finance the construction of ferry terminals in Ilichevsk and Poti, allotting 15 million Euro to this purpose.

On 8 September, 1998, a conference called TRACECA-Revival of the Great Silk Road was held in Baku. The presidents of Azerbaijan, Georgia, Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Rumania, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and Ukraine, as well as representatives of the European Commission, transport ministers and experts from 32 countries, and representatives of 12 international organizations took part in this conference. The main achievement of this meeting was the signing of a multilateral agreement on creating a Europe-Caucasus-Asia transportation corridor. In particular, it envisages the following points: rendering assistance to the development of economic relations, trade, and transportation communication in the Black Sea region, the Caucasus, the Caspian Region, and Central Asia; ensuring the safety of passenger traffic, the delivery of shipments, and environmental protection, and bringing the transportation policy of the member states into harmony with the relevant legal frameworks, that is, creating equal competition conditions for transport operation. A permanent intergovernmental commission (IGC) was created in Baku for resolving these tasks.

As mentioned above, the TRACECA program has financed 22 technical and seven investment projects, and Georgia was participating in seventeen and five, respectively.


1 See: Mikael O. Todaro, Ekonomicheskoe razvitie, Moscow, 1997.
2 See: V. Kuznetsov, Chto takoe globalizatsiia? Moscow, 1998.
3 See: Statistical Bulletin: The Socioeconomic Situation in Georgia for 1995-2000.
4 See: TASIS. Areas of the Georgian Economy. 2000. 1st-4th quarters.
5 See: B. Tsereteli, Geograficheskie aspekty sotsialno-ekonomicheskogo razvitiia Gruzii, Tbilisi, 1999.
6 See: Strategiia sotsialno-ekonomicheskogo razvitiia Gruzii na sovremennom etape, Tbilisi, 1998.
7 See: N. Chitanava, Sotsialno-ekonomicheskie problemy perekhodnogo perioda, Tbilisi, 2001.
8
See: Tsentr issledovaniia evropeiskoi integratsii CEIS. Evrosoiuz i Gruzianovaia perspektiva, No. 6-7, 2001.

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