Mustafa Bilalov, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Head of the Department of Ontology and the Theory of Cognition, State University of Daghestan (Makhachkala, the Russian Federation)


Russias integrity depends on ensuring civil identity as a priority factor in the development of society and the individual. Civil identity is fully realized in a civil nation that gradually takes shape within a particular society. The crisis of multiculturalism in the West triggered by the crisis of the European civilization and culture calls for a revision of certain ideas and theories associated with civil identity.

The question is whether the national regions of Russia (including Daghestan) will manage to adjust themselves to Western civilization in the specific conditions of a multinational and multi-confessional society.

This article is intended as an assessment of the general prospects for shaping a civil nation in Daghestan.

The North Caucasian and Daghestani Realities from the Point of View of Shaping a Civil Nation and Common All-Russia Identity

Some analysts think that in Daghestan even the classical ideologiesMarxism (popular among the Lezghian-speaking peoples), liberal (shared by the Darghins, Kumyks, and Laks), and Islamic (the Avars)are ethnically tinged. The far from favorable combination of ethnic and religious trends and the related negative political, legal, etc. processes unfolding in the republic insistently demand consistent legal and political measures to smooth out the contradictions, ensure sustainable economic growth, address the environmental and social problems, and remedy the current shortage of trained managers and administrators.

Today, it has become obvious that legal defects frequently trigger conflicts. The ethnic and confessional tension in some of the constituencies of the Russian Federation (particularly in the Northern Caucasus), for example, is caused by certain shortcomings of Russias federative structure.

Early in 2010, for example, the leaders of the Russian Federation surprised the academic and political community and society with a decree that created a new, North Caucasian Federal District (NCFD) and divided the previously existing Southern Federal District (SFD) into two parts with unequal natural and geographic conditions, population size, and, most important, the problems that have been accumulating there for many decades.

Those who wrote the decree probably looked, with good reason, at the Northern Caucasus as an integral civilizationthe new district is home to practically all the Muslims of the Russian Caucasus (nearly 4 million). In fact, by detaching the North Caucasian ethnicities from the more or less flourishing regions (Rostov, Krasnodar, Volgograd, Astrakhan, etc.), they merely lumped together the old problems and

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