THE PAKISTANI FACTOR IN THE AFGHAN CONFLICT
Kosimsho Iskandarov, D.Sc. (Hist.), Head of the Department of Iran and Afghanistan, the Rudaki Institute of Language, Literature, Oriental Studies, and Manuscript Heritage, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan (Dushanbe, Tajikistan)
In 1947, when Pakistan was established as an independent country, Afghanistan ceased to recognize the Durand Line, the border between India and Afghanistan drawn in 1893 under an agreement between Foreign Secretary of British India Sir Mortimer Durand and Afghan Amir Abdur Rahman Khan, and raised the question of the Pashtuns who found themselves in the newly established state. The Afghans demanded that the British either grant the Pashtuns and Balochi the right to elect their own government independent from the center or to join Afghanistan: as Afghans they should be free to decide whether they wanted to belong to any state or would prefer independence; deep at heart, however, the Afghan rulers expected that the British withdrawal from India would render the Durand Line agreement null and void. The relations between Afghanistan and Pakistan are burdened by countless problems; this explains why Pakistan keeps on interfering in its neighbor’s domestic affairs.
Keywords: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Pashtunistan, the Durand Line, conflict, the Tribal Areas, the right to self-determination.
For nearly four decades now, Afghanistan has been living in an armed conflict started by the military coup of 17 July, 1973 when, in King of Afghanistan Zahir Shah’s absence (who was in Europe at the time), Mohammad Daoud, his cousin, displaced him and declared a republic. Five years later, however, on 27 April, 1978, another military coup brought to power Nur Muhammad Taraki, leader of the People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan. His rule was a short one: on 14 September, 1979 he was...........