THE USE OF COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES TO OPPOSE POLITICAL-RELIGIOUS TERRORISM AS AN ETHNOSOCIAL DEVIATION IN THE CONTEMPORARY INFORMATION-DIGITAL SOCIETY
Irina MKRTUMOVA, Altynai DOSANOVA, Irina KARABULATOVA, Vladimir NIFONTOV
Irina Mkrtumova, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor, Deputy Director for Scientific-Analytical Work, Institute of Supplementary Professional Education (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Altynai Dosanova, Ph.D. (Pedagogy), Assistant Professor, Turan-Astana University (Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan)
Irina Karabulatova, D.Sc. (Philol.), Professor, Chief Research Associate, Department of the Sociology of Knowledge; Head, Sector of Ethnopolitical and Sociocultural Security and Communication Technologies, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Vladimir Nifontov, Post-graduate student, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Religion, which is spreading far and wide in politics, has become an important factor of sociopolitical life; it not only adds a religious dimension to political processes in different countries, but also breeds highly destructive phenomena—political-religious conflicts and political-religious terrorism. Politics and religion have become much closer connected in countries where the position of religion has always been strong (countries of the Islamic world and the Buddhist countries), as well as where the position of religion has been undermined to a certain extent (the post-socialist countries, including Russia). Intertwined with the political process, the religious factor may contribute either to stabilization or destabilization of the political space. To preserve social and state security, it is extremely important to identify the mechanisms and technologies that transform religion into a political tool; this adds urgency to the related problems. Political-religious extremism intends to eradicate or, at least, dent political stability through the wide use of ethnoconfessional factors.
This weakens the administrative tools and creates widespread social disorder, which might completely deform the political regime. The structures of state power should take every possible measure to prevent not only the visible outcrops of political extremism, but also the emergence of radical opposition groups in the political space. Globalization, the steadily developing information society, the latest network technologies, and the refined innovation potential of the production sphere are supplying political extremists with the latest, more indigenous, and refined means and methods. This negative political phenomenon, therefore, can and should be opposed by means adequate to its potential and resources, which pushes to the fore the problem of contemporary technologies to be used to oppose potential religious extremism. The upsurge of extremism and terrorism everywhere in the world (Russia being no exception) is not a chance phenomenon, it is historically determined. This means that we must study what has been and is being done to oppose this sociopolitical phenomenon in the Russian Federation and, taking the conclusions as the starting point, recommend the best means and methods for using technological potential to resist political and religious extremism today and in the future. Informal extremist alliances and their activities threaten the country’s national security.
Keywords: political-religious extremism, sociocultural and communication technologies, opposition to terrorism, confessional political science.