THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS IN THE 21ST CENTURY: SOCIOCULTURAL AND POLITICAL-ECONOMIC VIABILITY OF RUSSIA’S STATE SOVEREIGNTY
Valentin LYUBASHITS, Alexey MAMYCHEV, Diana MAMYCHEVA, Maria VRONSKAYA
Valentin Lyubashits, D.Sc. (Law), Professor, South Federal University (Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation)
Alexey Mamychev, D.Sc. (Political Science), Ph.D. in Law, Assistant Professor, Head of the Department of Theory and History of Russian and Foreign Law, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service (Vladivostok, Russian Federation)
Diana Mamycheva, Ph.D. (Culturology), Assistant Professor, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service (Vladivostok, Russian Federation)
Maria Vronskaya, Ph.D. (Law), Assistant Professor, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service (Vladivostok, Russian Federation)
The Northern Caucasus is living amid deep and extensive transformations that are evident in all spheres of life in the republics, as well as in their relations with the Center. The authors analyze the social, cultural, political, and economic aspects of the viability of sovereignty as an inalienable qualitative feature of state power as we know it today. They pay particular attention to the contradictory processes generated by the state’s inability to control humanitarian constitutional order. This is transforming local state conflict into a threat to world peace and security and creating a pretext for potential or even real interference in the internal affairs of the states and encroachment on their sovereignty. The authors also discuss the problems created by the fact that in the globalizing economy international trade regimes make independent foreign trade policies unprofitable and limit state sovereignty. The local societies, local self-administrations, republic-wide political systems, and entire region for that matter are also affected. The Center’s latest decisions to change the presidential representative in the South Caucasian Federal District and separate the functions of the region’s socioeconomic development and regional security and the anti-terrorist struggle by establishing the Ministry of North Caucasian Development, which acts independently of the law and order structures, may contribute to the region’s stabilization. The main political, social, economic, and cultural processes in regional entities are very similar in their content and trends, despite the differences in their specifics and rates of development. The Russian Federation is patterned on a center-periphery structure characterized by multilevel centralization and certain differences in social, political, cultural, and civilizational specifics among the region’s political entities and sub-regions. Taken together, this is seen as a macro system of closely related political units of different levels but with certain differences in the sociocultural mechanisms of their political institutions and power legitimization. The social and political processes observed in the Northern Caucasus are still unfolding under the strong impact of the Soviet Union’s tragic demise, the catastrophic social and economic crisis, the country’s new geopolitical status, the exacerbated national conflicts, and the desire of all the peoples to defend their national interests, preserve their social and cultural space, etc., religious and political extremism and terrorism being a logical and inevitable result. The country’s disintegration has damaged the region’s life-supporting spheres. It stands to reason that the above circumstances have given rise to numerous demands on the political system of the Russian Federation, which itself is undergoing transformation, and has created an urgent need to seek ways to promote the region’s social and political stabilization, as well as its development.
Keywords: power, globalization, state, civil society, political system, sovereignty, the Northern Caucasus.