THE TRADITIONAL ADYGHE CULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF GLOBALIZATION: SOCIAL INTEGRATION AS A FACTOR OF DEFUSING ETHNIC TENSION IN THE CAUCASUS
Svetlana LYAUSHEVA, Vyacheslav NEKHAI, Rashid KHUNAGOV, Bela SHKHACHEMUKOVA
Svetlana Lyausheva, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Vyacheslav Nekhai, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Rashid Khunagov, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor, Chancellor of the Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Bela Shkhachemukova, Post Graduate Student, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
The phenomenon of Adygag’e as an institutional determinant of integration of the Circassians, together with religion as an ideological and language as an instrumental determinant, may act as a factor of sociocultural unification of the Adyghe ethnicity. Their common social-integrative potential may help the Adyghe culture preserve its unique axiological world and forms of organization of social existence. The authors have studied the specifics of the emergence of the Adyghes’ social-integrative potential in its historical perspective based on “Adygag’e” as a social-regulatory system. On the one hand, globalization, which irrevocably intrudes into the spiritual sphere of the smaller peoples, the Circassians being one of them, is destroying the national partitions and importing global (not necessarily American or Western) values, thus unifying ethnic cultures. On the other hand, its positive achievements can be used to obtain advantages unheard of prior to the 3rd millennium: each ethnicity can give the world the unique features of its culture. In the post-contemporary world, in which globalization creates localization, while localization, in turn, leads to globalization, it has become especially important to study all transformations of the ethno-linguistic cultures. The North Caucasian peoples will have no choice but to adjust themselves to the development of world civilization. They will have to look for their place in the emerging world order, as well as their road to the future and a new self-identity in the context of the sociocultural and geopolitical processes unfolding in the region and around it. It seems that the time has come to study the role ethnic cultures have played at different times in history and in different political contexts and to identify the principles and methods of an analysis of culture as a social phenomenon, its aims and potentials within a sociocultural analysis, and the conditions, tasks, and boundaries within which cultural policy can be realized in the Caucasus. The social transformations going on in Russia in the conditions of globalization are changing the way of life of the peoples and their cultural landmarks. It remains to be seen which of the structures of ethnic culture will be affected and to what extent, as well as the direction in which these changes will move. The answers to these questions are of immense importance for a better understanding of the sociocultural practices in Russia as a whole and in its polyethnic regions in particular (Adygea being one of them). The peoples of Russia, the Caucasian peoples in the first place, are keenly aware of the critical reassessment of their cultural-civilizational identity, which is manifested in forms of sociocultural, ethnopolitical, and national self-awareness.
Keywords: socio-integrative potential, socio-normative system, globalization, Adygag’e, traditional culture, modernization.