TRADITIONAL ADYGHE STEREOTYPES WITHIN THE ETHNIC TOLERANCE/INTOLERANCE DICHOTOMY AS A FACTOR OF ETHNIC EVOLUTION IN THE NORTHERN CAUCASUS
Rashid KHUNAGOV, Asfar SHAOV, Svetlana LYAUSHEVA, Vyacheslav NEKHAI
Rashid Khunagov, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor, Chancellor of the Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Asfar Shaov, D.Sc. (Philos.), Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Svetlana Lyausheva, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Vyacheslav Nekhai, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
The ethnosocial processes unfolding in the sociocultural space of the Adyghe have demonstrated that globalization is more than an entropic challenge to ethnocultural identity; it expands the space of ethnic communication through cooptation of universal humanistic values, while preserving ethnocultural authenticity. The cultural impact of the Western and Eastern (Islamic) civilizations and the Russian culture in particular in the Northern Caucasus has not engulfed the very specific local culture. This impact can be felt, but cultural elements are never borrowed. The external and internal cultural impact in the Northern Caucasus is transformed and reshaped into the region’s civilizational and cultural specifics during extremely complicated and dynamic integration/disintegration interaction. The sociocultural processes in the Northern Caucasus, which civilizationally remains a multi-layered structure, are fairly risky. This unique sociocultural phenomenon rests on the specific autochthonous culture of local societies with Arab Muslim, Russian, and Western cultural layers. Its transformations are caused by narrowing down the spheres of the Russian and Western layers or squeezing them out altogether, as well as an expansion of the Arab-Islamic cultural component. In this context, we should analyze the region’s negative image stemming from the ethnic stereotypes tagged to the local peoples. Today, the commonly shared opinion of the North Caucasian peoples are based on outdated and yet very much alive stereotypes to a much greater extent than before, even though the rising regional tension makes it much more important to arrive at adequate and unbiased ideas about them. It should be said that people with superficial ideas about members of any ethnicity tend to rely on stereotypical opinions. To look into the genesis and assess the importance of the Adyghe ethnic stereotypes and their role in ethnic interaction, we have discussed the role of ethnic stereotypes in the region and identified the most common and the most substantiated among them. Study of the ethnic stereotypes of the Adyghe as regulators of internal social behavior when dealing with “others” (“aliens”) has supplied us with an idea of the evolutionary processes among the North Caucasian peoples.
Keywords: ethnic stereotypes, ethnic attitudes, intercultural communication, ethnic harmony, tolerance/intolerance, the Adyghe, the Northern Caucasus.