ETHNIC TENSIONS IN THE SOUTH OF RUSSIA IN THE OPINIONS OF EXPERTS
Svetlana LYAUSHEVA, Rashid KHUNAGOV, Zuriet ZHADE, Asiet SHADZHE
Svetlana Lyausheva, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Rashid Khunagov, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor, Chancellor of the Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Zuriet Zhade, D.Sc. (Political Science), Professor, Head of the Department of State and Law Theory and Political Science, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Asiat Shadzhe, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Increasing interest in the theoretical and practical aspects of the problem of ethnic tensions is due both to practical considerations and the changed methodological situation in domestic sociology and political science. The inclusion of the majority of the territories currently in the Southern Federal District in Russia has not gone smoothly. At the end of the Caucasian war, particular judicial writs for the implementation of the policy of the Empire in the region were developed—the Regulations “Regarding the Caucasus’ Governance” (1865) and “On the Caucasus Military-Civic Administration” (1880). The system of military-civic administration combined the All-Russia system of governance with local, traditional self-government and legal proceedings. The developed blueprint for governance and government support for the spread and establishment of Islam in the Northern Caucasus contributed to the gradual integration of the region into the united single political unit of the Empire. The legal recognition of the need for specific forms of population management in a region and introduction of special territorial bodies for this task were the first steps in legitimization of ethnic origin within the Empire. But now this construct is used for infiltration of radical Islamists and formation of ethnosocial deviations. Soviet Russia, since its political inception, has proclaimed the political right of nations to self-determination, approved in one of the first legal acts by the Soviet Government—The Declaration of the Rights of the Peoples of Russia (2 November, 1917). According to this declaration, the Soviet governance was construed as a Federation of nations.
Complexity of the phenomenon “ethnic tension” has caused difficulties in the organization of the social and economic work focused on prevention of sociopolitical, religious, ethnic tensions. Ethnic identification plays the key role in a life of an individual and society, providing special severity to ethnic conflicts. The regular recurrence of violence testifies to these conflicts’ close connection to crime, in particular, against private individuals, as well as state and public authority, governmental security and order. Considering ethnic tensions in the Southern Federal District (SFD), we are addressing not only political, ethnic and religious causes of conflicts, but also their dependence on the ethnic groups themselves, these groups’ unifying parameters, the national policy pursued in a country and regions, the research methods used for studying ethnosocial processes and ethnic tensions, etc.
Keywords: ethnic relations, ethnic congruence, identity, ethnic tension, expert opinion, the national policy, the South of Russia.