CENTRAL ASIAN DIASPORAS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: MIGRATION CHANNELS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE SENDING COMMUNITIES
Elena PISMENNAIA, Sergey RYAZANTSEV, Vitaly BOZHENKO
Elena Pismennaia, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor at the Department of Sociology, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Sergey Ryazantsev, Corresponding Member of Russian Academy of Sciences, D.Sc. (Econ.), Professor at the RUDN-University and MGIMO-University, Head of the Center of Social Demography, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Vitaly Bozhenko, Ph.D. (Econ.), Applicant of the Center of Social Demography, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
This article examines the Central Asia-Russian Federation migration corridor, which is one of the largest and most stable not only in Eurasia, but also throughout the world. Labor migration is the main migration flow in this corridor. Return, student, and forced migration are also widespread in this region. It should also be noted that labor migration has become a real form of economic integration for the Central Asian countries and the Russian Federation, which has largely given rise to the formation of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU) that includes the Russian Federation, the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Republic of Belarus, the Republic of Armenia, and the Kyrgyz Republic. The Republic of Tajikistan and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam might also potentially join the integration union.
The unprecedented scope of migration is significantly changing the values, attitudes toward life, and demographic behavior of the regional countries, this being true for the population of both the sending and the host states. Mass emigration has resulted in the formation of numerous Central Asian diasporas abroad, primarily in the Russian Federation, as the largest host country in Eurasia.
This article takes a look at the migration channels that form the Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Turkmen diasporas in the Russian Federation. It also defines the role of the diasporas in the socioeconomic development of the sending countries with respect to remittances, business development, and the impact on demographic parameters. At present, labor migration from the Central Asian countries is occurring spontaneously and is largely undocumented. The spontaneous nature of migration is also responsible for the objectives of labor migration and remittances, i.e. they are only promoting a rise in the level of current consumption. Migrants do not particularly think about savings and long-term investments beyond meeting their daily needs (food and clothing), medical expenses, education, household amenities, holding weddings, celebrations, etc. Many labor migrants from Central Asia in the Russian Federation do not have a full legal status or work permit, which places them at the mercy of their employers. Their lack of legal status and the presence of labor migrants in the informal and shadow economy is having a negative impact on the socioeconomic development of the Central Asian countries.
Keywords: diasporas, Central Asia, Russia, migration channels, contribution, socioeconomic development, sending communities.