KAZAKHSTAN-SAUDI ARABIA: FOREIGN POLICY CONTACTS AND INTERACTION IN THE CONTEXT OF ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS
Alla KARABULATOVA, Leonid KIM
Alla Karabulatova, Post-graduate student, Department of Sociology of Knowledge, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Leonid Kim, Post-graduate student, Department of Sociology of Knowledge, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
The second decade of the twenty-first century is demonstrating an unprecedented scope of foreign economic activities (international economic operations) in which TNCs act as traders (merchants), investors, promoters of latest technologies that invigorate international labor migration. They are responsible, to a great extent, for the dynamics, structure and level of competitiveness in the world market of goods and services, international movement of capital and transfer of technologies (knowledge). There is a group of oil-rich states among the independent states in the Persian Gulf region that scored considerable economic victories. In the last few decades, unfolding globalization, widening economic ties and the emerging new parameters of international relations have moved the Gulf monarchies (that own 43.9% of the world’s proven oil reserves and 15.5% of natural gas resources) from the region’s periphery to the center of world economics and Middle Eastern politics. The Middle East is an object rather than a subject of geopolitics. The West remains convinced that despite its rich fuel resources, the Muslim world is unable to create an efficient economic model, while the local people are not interested in business. This is not true: the Arabic Middle East has performed a fantastic leap into the future that disproved the Western stereotypes. Today, Saudi Arabia invests into many countries of the world, its interests stretching far and wide outside the Middle East: in particular, it is drawing closer to Kazakhstan with inevitable readjustments of both countries’ foreign policy priorities.
Keywords: Middle Eastern policies, Saudi Arabia, Kazakhstan, foreign policy, investments, soft power, Islamic banking.