DIASPORAS AS INFORMAL TOOLS FOR REGULATING MIGRATION IN THE EURASIAN ECONOMIC UNION
Sergey RYAZANTSEV, Alexander TER-AKOPOV, Elena PISMENNAIA, Anna LUKYANOVA
Sergey Ryazantsev, D.Sc. (Econ.), Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Head of the Center for Social Demography of the Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences; Professor at RUDN University and MGIMO University, Head of the Demographic Processes Research Laboratory, National Research University BelSu (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Alexander Ter-Akopov, Ph.D. (Econ.), Research Fellow at the Center for Social Demography of the Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Elena Pismennaia, D.Sc. (Sociol.), Professor at the Department of Sociology, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation (Moscow, Russian Federation)
Anna Lukyanova, Ph.D. (Econ.), Associate Professor at the North Caucasus Federal University (Stavropol, Russian Federation)
The article examines the problems of diasporization and defines the concept of “modern diaspora.” The formation of large diasporas from Central Asian countries is the result of prolonged and large-scale migration from that region to Russia. Migration acts as a kind of catalyst for change in the ethnic composition of the population. Social networks are an additional “pull” factor for those who want to leave their country in search of work. Diasporas have significant socioeconomic resources and can influence decision-making in the area of government regulation, as well as socioeconomic processes. There is a direct relationship between the scale of migration and the size of the diaspora, that is, the choice of destination for emigrants is largely determined by the development level and size of the diaspora. On the one hand, diasporas are actors that help migrants to adapt to the new conditions and integrate into the host society, serving as a buffer between the migrants and the local population, and on the other hand, they help to form ethnic enclaves with an ethnic economy in areas with a high concentration of migrants. The article also notes that for the successful integration of migrants in Russia, it is necessary to harmonize industrial relations by improving working conditions and remuneration, to improve the system for the legal protection of migrants, simplify the procedure for acquiring citizenship and make it more transparent.
Keywords: labor migration, informal regulation tools, diaspora, ethnic economy, adaptation and integration of migrants.