INTERNAL MIGRATION IN CENTRAL ASIA: SOCIAL RISKS (CASE STUDIES OF KAZAKHSTAN, TAJIKISTAN, AND KYRGYZSTAN)
Roza NURTAZINA, Arman TOKTUSHAKOV
Roza Nurtazina, D.Sc. (Political Science), Professor, Department of Political Science, Lev Gumilev Eurasian National University (Astana, Kazakhstan)
Arman Toktushakov, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Political Science, Lev Gumilev Eurasian National University (Astana, Kazakhstan)
The article deals with the examination of the processes of internal migration in the countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan) and the risks that this phenomenon represents for the societies of those countries. The objectives of the study are the definition of the theoretical concepts of migration, internal migration and social risks, as well as an analysis of the main social risks in the countries of the region. In the course of the study, the context of internal migration is identified and the likely points of social concern and dissatisfaction of the population—the social risks—are revealed. Also identified are the main social risks of internal migration (disruption in the balance of the labor market, the growth of conflict proneness in society, reduction in the tolerance toward migrants, excessive urbanization, the decline of rural areas, crime increase, lowered birth rates, the violation of human rights, deterioration of the environment, the weakening of territorial and cultural unity, the threat to security and quality of life of local communities, and civic passivity of the migrants) in Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Kyrgyzstan, their causes and connection to the current migration processes.
Keywords: migration, internal migration, social risks, unemployment, Central Asia.