POLITICAL PROCESSES IN RUSSIA AND ISLAMIC RADICALISM
Svetlana GALIULLINA, Artur SULEYMANOV, Gulsina NIYAZOVA, Yulia BAKULINA
Svetlana Galiullina, D.Sc. (Hist.), Associate Professor, Department of History and Religious Studies Abroad, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Artur Suleymanov, Ph.D. (Political Science), Associate Professor, Department of History and Religious Studies Abroad, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Gulsina Niyazova, D.Sc. (Philol.), Professor, Department of Journalism, Institute of Philology and Journalism, Tyumen State University (Tyumen, Russian Federation)
Yulia Bakulina, Ph.D. (Philos.), Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
The authors reveal the role Islamic radicalism plays in the political processes unfolding in Russia, its global and internal sources and explain how and why it takes shape and develops within the political agenda. Today, Islamic radicalism is no longer a potential threat—it carries political risks for Russia’s national security. Studies of the ways in which Islamic radicalism affects the political agenda of the Russian Federation remain a highly topical or even a burning issue: the latest methodological instruments have opened new vistas for scholarly studies of this highly complicated phenomenon and its in-depth analysis. These instruments are absolutely indispensable in forecasting the risks of Islamic radicalism spreading far and wide at the regional and local levels; these risks, in their turn, are changing under the pressure of globalization.
In fact, traditional (moderate) and radical trends in Islam are its intrinsic features, while Islamic radicalism of the twenty-first century is an absolutely new social and political phenomenon—no longer a “confessional issue” within Islam but a global threat. This has been fully confirmed by the recent outbursts of criminal activities perpetrated by Islamist radicals, extremists and terrorists who have already crossed the borders of Muslim countries into other countries and stirred up Islamophobia on a global scale. Today, political conflicts rooted in confessional aspects have acquired a special importance and echo far and wide in social and political spheres. Radical Islamist teachings, even if disjointed, are extremely dangerous: they dent the social and political order within states. We should, however, distinguish between “Islamic radicalism” and “Islamic extremism,” concepts that are similar, but not identical. The former shapes political positions and a fundamentalist world outlook, and may remain within these limits rather than slip into criminal activities. Islamic extremism can be described as a practical implementation of radical ideas: terror, fanning religious conflicts, seizure of political power and regime change. The question is: are these phenomena related?
Keywords: Islamic radicalism, political process, national security, risks, modernization, federalism, democracy, pluralism, prevention, politicization.