ADAPTATION OF MIGRANTS FROM ALIEN CULTURES IN THE URALS-VOLGA REGION: ETHNOPOLITICAL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOFT SECURITY CONTEXT
Lailya KHUSNUTDINOVA, Svetlana GALIULLINA, Ramil ISTAMGALIN, Yulia BAKULINA, Liana SADYKOVA, Vladimir NIFONTOV
Kaikya Khusnutdinova, Ph.D. (Hist.), Assistant Professor, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Svetlana Galiullina, D.Sc. (Hist.), Professor, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Ramil Istamgalin, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Yulia Bakulina, Ph.D. (Philos.), Assistant Professor, Ufa State Petroleum Technological University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Liana Sadikova, Ph.D. (Hist.), Senior Lecturer, Akmullah Bashkir State Pedagogical University (Ufa, Russian Federation)
Vladimir Nifontov, Post-graduate student, Institute of Socio-Political Research, Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow, Russian Federation)
There are many economic, sociocultural, and educational factors that make it fairly difficult to adapt migrants to new environments. Furthermore, globalization, the growing number of non-traditional actors, and securitization policy have pushed problems of a non-military nature to the fore. The change in threats is leading to a restructuring of the entire security concept—its subject (who is doing the protecting), object (who is being protected), and the methods employed to implement it. The new trends in the international relations system ensure the use of ethnopolitical technologies in the context of the soft security concept. Widely used in the academic discourse, this concept has not acquired a unified interpretation. In some cases, soft security as a special component is rejected. After legalizing their presence in Russia, migrants acquire certain rights that help them integrate into Russian society. This article relies on sociological polls and the field materials gathered by the authors in 2014-2015 to discuss the integration and adaptation of migrants in the republics of Bashkortostan and Tatarstan, as well as the Perm Territory and Samara and Orenburg regions of the Russian Federation, which have a far from simple ethnic and confessional composition. The Urals-Volga Region is one the most densely populated areas of Russia with ethnic, religious, and linguistic diversity inherited from the past, in which different cultural traditions live peacefully side by side. The unfolding migrant processes add new elements to the already diverse composition of the local population. Despite the fairly large migrant flow, the Urals-Volga Region can offer, on the whole, favorable conditions of social and cultural adaptation; however, the new soft security paradigm remains high on Russia’s agenda as a world actor. In the regions, this task in entrusted to the regional and territorial administrations of the Federal Migration Service (FMS). Acting within the framework of the Concept of State Migration Policy of the Russian Federation until 2025, the FMS and Passport-Visa Service Federal Main Administration are engaged in a joint project aimed at setting up social adaptation centers for migrants. The regions discussed in this article have accumulated a wealth of positive experience in implementing national policy at the Russian regional level and in the Urals-Volga Region as a whole. The municipal and regional power structures are actively and efficiently helping migrants to integrate into the local community. The Urals-Volga Region has acquired a positive image based primarily on social, economic, cultural, sports, and other achievements, as well as its efficient local administrations. This experience should be studied and used in other regions of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: migration, adaptation, integration, social culture, public institutions, region, soft security.