EXPERT ASSESSMENTS OF THE ETHNOSOCIAL PROCESSES IN THE CAUCASUS TODAY: REPUBLIC OF ADYGEA
Zuriet ZHADE, Asiet SHADZHE, Svetlana LYAUSHEVA, Nadezhda ILYINOVA
Zuriet Zhade, D.Sc. (Political Science), Professor, Head of the Department of State and Law Theory and Political Science, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Asiet Shadzhe, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Svetlana Lyausheva, D.Sc. (Philos.), Professor, Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
Nadezhda Ilyinova, Ph.D. (Sociol.), Assistant Professor, Head of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Adyghe State University (Maykop, Republic of Adygea, Russian Federation)
The authors analyze expert assessments of the minimization of ethnic tension, the specific roads leading to ethnic harmony, the main scenarios of the ethnosocial processes unfolding in the Republic of Adygea, and the obvious need to use an interdisciplinary approach to study of the ethnosphere. Our analysis is based on the results of expert polls/interviews related to the state of the ethnosocial processes in Adygea, a republic in the piedmont area of the Greater Caucasus in southern Russia. The authors reveal the main factors of ethnic tension in the region: economic, ethnoconfessional, and migration. It turns out that the effects of ethnic tension on the ethnosocial processes can be both positive and negative. Study of the ethnosocial processes and ethnic tension in the South of Russia confirms that we should rely on multidimensional approaches; this, in turn, stimulates scholarly discourse designed to reassess the commonly accepted approaches. With respect to migration processes, the recent events in the region relating to the events in Ukraine have strongly affected the local context and stirred up an academic discussion about the ethnopolitical situation, the nature of ethnic relations, the level and causes of ethnic tension, and the specifics of regional ethnonational policy. The region is living under the pressure of intensified Islamic radicalism. Today, in all the national constituents of the Russian Federation, ethnic awareness is on the rise; it serves as the basis of ethnic ideologies that are gradually replacing the Soviet principle of internationalism that regulated national relations and kept them under control. This makes ethnic segmentation an important social and political resource. Ethnopolitical structures in many of the polyethnic regions of Russia mean that social differentiation is not free from ethnic aspects. Transformed and invigorated, the ethnosocial processes in the North Caucasian republics have already triggered considerable changes in the system of ethnosocial relations. The authors investigate the specific ways ethnic harmony is achieved in the region and the scenarios of ethnosocial processes that are unfolding there. They also concentrate on the efficiency of the state nationalities policy in the region. The unifying parameters of the Russian ethnicities that help preserve the unity of our state have not been forgotten either. The authors conclude that study of the regional self-developing sociocultural systems requires an interdisciplinary approach.
Keywords: ethnic relations, ethnosocial processes, identity, ethnic tension, expert opinion.